Ame-no-Uzume-no-Mikoto (Japanese: 天宇受売命, 天鈿女命) is the goddess of dawn, mirth, meditation, revelry and the arts in the Shinto religion of Japan, and the wife of fellow-god Sarutahiko Ōkami.
Ame-no-Uzume is the Shinto goddess of dawn, a master of merry-making, humor, and dancing. A highly positive kami (a type of god or spirit in the Shinto religion), her ingenuity brought Amaterasu, the sun goddess, back into the world, saving the earth from eternal winter’s night. A popular deity, Ame-no-Uzume is credited with the origination of the performing arts.
Ame-no-Uzume is very different from her mistress, however, being more inclined to joviality and creativity, which connect to the potential, creation, and happiness often associated with sunrise. Because of this, Ame-no-Uzume is often portrayed as smiling.
Traditional stories describe Ame-no-Uzume as wearing loose or revealing clothing, which other kami in these stories find comical, but Ame-no-Uzume is joyful and unconcerned. Unlike the very reserved and proper Amaterasu, Ame-no-Uzume is open, easygoing, and dedicated to bringing joy to the world. Her nature makes her a great diplomat, and she acts as one of Amaterasu’s most trusted servants.
Mirrors, a sacred symbol of the Imperial family, are often connected to Ame-no-Uzume because of the way the ocean on Japan’s eastern coast reflects the dawn sun like a mirror.
Ame-no-Uzume is credited with the creation of many Japanese art forms, such as kagura, a kind of dance telling the stories of kami, and some forms of comedy and theater such as the ancient noh. Ame-no-Uzume is often depicted in kyogen, a comedic theater tradition, and here she is often displayed semi-nude to comic effect. Because of these theatrical connections, Ame-no-Uzume is the goddess of revelry.
In relation to her husband, she is also considered an inari kami, or a goddess connected to kitsune, Japanese fox spirits known for their cunning and wiles.
“Ame no Uzume ‘s themes are honor, longevity, wisdom, psychic abilities, prosperity, protection and kinship. Her symbols are antique items, aged wines or cheese (anything that grows better over time) and sacred dances. A Japanese ancestral Goddess, Ame no Uzume’s magic is that of generating a long, happy life for Her followers. Shinto festivals in Her honor include special dances that invoke the Goddess’s favor for longevity, honor, prosperity, protection and a close-knit family. In some areas, people also turn to Her for foresight, considering Ame no Uzume the patroness of psychic mediums.
also known as Amaterasu-Ōmikami (天照大御神, 天照大神) or Ōhirume-no-Muchi-no-Kami (大日孁貴神) among other names, is the goddess of the sun in Japanese mythology. One of the major deities (kami) of Shinto, she is also portrayed in Japan's earliest literary texts, the Kojiki (ca. 712 CE) and the Nihon Shoki (720 CE), as the ruler (or one of the rulers) of the heavenly realm Takamagahara and the mythical ancestress of the Imperial House of Japan via her grandson Ninigi. Along with her siblings, the moon deity Tsukuyomi and the impetuous storm god Susanoo, she is considered to be one of the "Three Precious Children" (三貴子, mihashira no uzu no miko / sankishi), the three most important offspring of the creator god Izanagi.
Amaterasu's chief place of worship, the Grand Shrine of Ise in Ise, Mie Prefecture, is one of Shinto's holiest sites and a major pilgrimage center and tourist spot. As with other Shinto kami, she is also enshrined in a number of Shinto shrines throughout Japan.
Amaterasu, while primarily being the goddess of the sun, is also sometimes worshiped as having connections with other aspects and forms of nature. Amaterasu can also be considered a goddess of the wind and typhoons alongside her brother, and even possibly death. There are many connections between local legends in the Ise region with other goddesses of nature, such as a nameless goddess of the underworld and sea. It's possible that Amaterasu's name became associated with these legends in the Shinto religion as it grew throughout Japan.
In contrast, Amaterasu, while enshrined at other locations, also can be seen as the goddess that represents Japan and its ethnicity. The many differences in Shinto religion and mythology can be due to how different local gods and beliefs clashed. In the Meiji Era, the belief in Amaterasu fought against the Izumo belief in Ōkuninushi for spiritual control over the land of Japan. During this time, the religious nature of Okininushi may have been changed to be included in Shinto mythology. Osagawara Shouzo built shrines in other countries to mainly spread Japan's culture and Shinto religion. It, however, was usually seen as the worshiping of Japan itself, rather than Amaterasu. Most of these colonial and oversea shrines were destroyed after WWII.
Outside of being worshiped as a sun goddess, some have argued that Amaterasu was once related to snakes. There was a legend circulating among the Ise Priests that essentially described an encounter of Amaterasu sleeping with the Saiō every night in the form of a snake or lizard, evidenced by fallen scales in the priestess' bed. This was recorded by a medieval monk in his diary, which stated that "in ancient times Amaterasu was regarded as a snake deity or as a sun deity." In the Ise kanjō, the god's snake form is considered an embodiment of the "three poisons", namely greed, anger, and ignorance. Amaterasu is also linked to a snake cult, which is also tied to the theory that the initial gender of the goddess was male.
In general, some of these Amaterasu-dragon associations have been in reference to Japanese plays. One example has been within the Chikubushima tradition in which the dragon goddess Benzaiten was the emanation of Amaterasu. Following that, in the Japanese epic, Taiheki, one of the characters, Nitta Yoshisada (新田義貞), made comparisons with Amaterasu and a dragon with the quote: “I have heard that the Sun Goddess of Ise … conceals her true being in the august image of Vairocana, and that she has appeared in this world in the guise of a dragon god of the blue ocean.”
Another tradition of the Heavenly Cave story depicts Amaterasu as a "dragon-fox" (shinko or tatsugitsune) during her descent to the famed cave because it is a type of animal/kami that emits light from its entire body.
Because Amaterasu has the highest position among the Shinto deities, there has been debate on her influence and relation to women's positions in early Japanese society. Some scholars have argued that the goddess' presence and high stature within the kami system could suggest that early rulers in Japan were female. Others have argued the goddess' presence implies strong influences female priests had in Japanese politics and religion.
In Gaelic (Irish, Scottish and Manx) myth, the Cailleach (Irish: [kɪˈl̠ʲax, ˈkal̠ʲəx], Scottish Gaelic: [ˈkʰaʎəx]) is a divine hag and ancestor, associated with the creation of the landscape and with the weather, especially storms and winter. The word literally means 'old woman, hag', and is found with this meaning in modern Irish and Scottish Gaelic, and has been applied to numerous mythological and folkloric figures in Ireland, Scotland, and the Isle of Man.In modern Irish folklore studies she is also known as The Hag of Beara, while in Scotland she is also known as Beira, Queen of Winter.
The Cailleach, also known as the Cailleach Bheirre or Bhéara, and the Cailleach Bheur, or Bhuerra. On the Isle of Man she is called the Caillagh, or Caillagh ny Groamagh. She appears in various Irish poems as Digdi/Digde, Biróg, Buí or Bua/ch. Her name means Veiled or Cloaked One.
She is a hag, or what might sometimes be known as a crone goddess. She is a goddess of Winter, stones and mountains, the wilderness, and is the protectress of wild beasts – specifically red deer who are referred to as her cattle. She is associated with the stone carvings of Sheela na gig, the grinning gargoyle woman stretching wide her enormous vagina who adorns various stone buildings throughout the British Isles.
She is related to pre-Celtic Irish goddess Mor Mormain. Scholars have also equated her with the Jötunn goddesses of Germanic tradition, notably Jörð the earth giantess and mother of Thor, and Skaði the mountain etin-bride of Winter. In her various stories, she is at odds with the forces of Summer.
She is depicted as crotchety and at times sinister, but not truly villainous. The Cailleach is described as having lived seven lives, and in each of these lifetimes she had many husbands, giving birth to many tribes and clans. She laments her lost loves, having outlived them all. In the stories, she mourns her youth and laments being particularly wise (ignorance is apparently bliss).
In Scottish lore, she is also called Beira, Queen of Winter and is the mother of the gods; or alternatively as Duan na Muileartaich, the Water Hag. Her name is related to Gaelic words for owl, nun and witch. She is described as a giantess by the Scots, and as having dark blue skin, white hair, teeth as red as rust, and only one working eye.
In Scottish folklore she also wields a hammer, and travels the land carrying a basket of rocks, which cause thunder as they tumble down from inside. Her banging about the land created many land formations throughout Scotland and Ireland.
There are many place names throughout the Scottish highlands and the Hebrides named for her. Many standing stones are also named for her, usually a result of her turning to stone, turning her family to stone, or dropping a stone from her basket of rocks. She is particularly associated with Ben Nevis, Britain’s highest mountain peak. Tiring of her lazy maid Nessa, the Cailleach has her transformed into Loch Ness, creating another famous landmark.
She is associated with many place names in Ireland, such as the Beara Peninsula in County Cork. The megalithic tombs at Loughcrew in County Meath are also hers, where the rising sun’s rays illuminate an inner chamber filled with megalithic stone carvings.
The commencement of Winter is signaled when the Cailleach washes her plaid dress in “her cauldron” the Corryreckan whirlpool (which is the third largest in the world). Her swirling and swooshing it around stirs the atmosphere. She washes for three days, after which her blue and green plaid is washed out, and now white, as snow gently covers the land.
The Cailleach can take on a plural form of eight sisters called the Cailleachan, or Storm Hags. The worst weather of the season, sleet in particular, are attributed to them. If one Cailleach is cranky – imagine what eight are like!
In the Scottish legends, the Cailleach alternates power with Brigid the goddess of fire, and the two sometimes battle for control of the seasons. Cailleach ruled the land between Samhain and Beltaine, Brigid from Beltaine to Samhain. Some versions depict Cailleach as turning to stone during Brigid’s rule, and Cailleach kidnapping and imprisoning Brigid during her season, beneath Ben Nevis. Aengus, a son of the Cailleach, must rescue Brigid from his mother, and the often turbulent weather during the month of March is said to represent this struggle between the three.
In yet another version, the Cailleach is Brigid, and changes form with the turning of the seasons. She comes into full crone-dom and power on the Winter Solstice, where she generates all of the foul weather. Her power wanes after this apex and she drinks from the Well of Youth. As she does, she becomes young and beautiful again and with her transformation comes the spring. In time, the power of the Well beings to wear off and she begins to age once more.
In Ireland, the Cailleach is associated with craggy, prominent mountains and outcroppings, such as Hag's Head (Irish: Ceann Caillí, meaning 'hag's head') the southernmost tip of the Cliffs of Moher in County Clare.
The megalithic tombs at Loughcrew in County Meath are situated atop Slieve na Calliagh (Irish: Sliabh na Caillí, meaning 'the hag's mountain') and include a kerbstone known as "the hag's chair".Cairn T on Slieve na Calliagh is a classic passage tomb, in which the rays of the equinox sunrise shine down the passageway and illuminate an inner chamber filled with megalithic stone carvings.
The summit of Slieve Gullion in County Armagh features a passage tomb known locally as the 'Calliagh Beara's House'. There is also a lake, where the Calliagh is said to have played a trick on the mythical warrior, Fionn mac Cumhaill, when he took on the physical appearance of an old man after diving into the lake to retrieve a ring that the Calliagh fooled him into thinking was lost.
Aillenacally (Aill na Caillí, "Hag Cliff") is a cliff in County Galway.
The Carrowmore passage tombs on the Cúil Iorra Peninsula in County Sligo, are associated with the Cailleach. One is called the Cailleach a Bhéara's House. William Butler Yeats refers to the Sligo Cailleach as the 'Clooth na Bare'. In County Sligo she is also called the Garavogue Cailleach.
She is often not shown in a favorable light – and yet great lengths are taken to appease and honor her. The times she is revealed as a benefactor are often the times when she decides to reward mortals for their work or their deeds.
In the Scottish tradition Caillech is a deer-herder, and the deer who get away and escape from hunters are said to have been led from harm by the goddess.
Although compassionate to the deer, these acts are associated with curmudgeonly Cailleach keeping food from the people during the lean Winter months. Her walking stick causes the ground to freeze, so not only is she responsible for hiding the deer, she causes the cold in the first place!
In both Scotland and Ireland, the Cailleach was venerated in the making of Carline, a corn dolly (“corn” in Europe referred to wheat prior to Christopher Columbus) from the last sheaves of the season. Carline would be made in the likeness of a maiden for a good harvest … and a hag for a poor one, which would be tossed into whichever field in the community had not finished bringing in that year’s crop. The farmer was then required to care for the corn dolly, keeping her in a little bed and “feeding” her throughout the Winter, presumably making little food offerings. It was fierce competition to not be stuck with little Carline all Winter! The properly cared for Carline would be buried with the first seedlings of Spring or fed to the horses who would do the first plowing.
In Irish tradition she is the sister of Áine, the Summer goddess. On Imbolg in Ireland, or Là Fhèill Brìghde in Scotland, the Cailleach goes out to gather firewood to last the rest of Winter. If she’s feeling extra crabby and decides to make Winter last longer, she will ensure that on Imbolg the weather is bright and sunny, so that she can gather more than enough wood to last her through the longer season. If the weather is poor on Imbolg, it’s a good sign indicating that Cailleach will spend the day napping, won’t procure enough firewood, and so will concede when it is time to hand over the season. Birds seen carrying sticks in their mouths on Imbolg are thought to be helping the Cailleach, or sometimes are the hag goddess in bird form.
She appears in later Arthurian legend as the Loathly Lady, in which a hideous hag is sought to help break a curse that has befallen the land, causing King Arthur to weaken to the point of death. She agrees to Sir Gawain’s request to break the curse, provided he take her as his wife.
Heavy-hearted young Gawain agrees and on their wedding night she transforms, revealing herself to be the beautiful dame Ragnell. She tells Gawain she can appear as a hag by day and beauty by night, or in reverse, and that he must choose. Gawain tells her that he would like for to choose for herself. For his respectful answer, she rewards him by choosing to take her fair form at all times that she is with him.
At Beltane in Scotland, a figure from the community would dress up as the Cailleach, and would have eggs thrown at her, being mocked and ridiculed by the community before she would take a ritual bath of purification, becoming the maiden goddess once more. On the Isle of Man, mock battles would be held between the May Queen and an actress depicting the Cailleach and the May Queen.
The folk tales and observances are nearly endless – a testament to the greatness of the goddess, her influence on mortal affairs, and her position amongst the other gods.
Brigid (/ˈbrɪdʒɪd, ˈbriːɪd/ BRIJ-id, BREE-id, Irish: [ˈbʲɾʲɪjɪdʲ, ˈbʲɾʲiːdʲ]; meaning 'exalted one' from Old Irish), Brigit or Bríg is a goddess of pre-Christian Ireland. She appears in Irish mythology as a member of the Tuatha Dé Danann, the daughter of the Dagda and wife of Bres, with whom she had a son named Ruadán.
She is associated with wisdom, poetry, healing, protection, blacksmithing and domesticated animals. Cormac's Glossary, written in the 9th century by Christian monks, says that Brigid was "the goddess whom poets adored" and that she had two sisters: Brigid the healer and Brigid the smith. This suggests she may have been a triple deity. She is also thought to have some relation to the British Celtic goddess Brigantia.
Saint Brigid shares many of the goddess's attributes and her feast day, 1 February, was originally a pagan festival (Imbolc) marking the beginning of spring. It has thus been argued that the saint is a Christianization of the goddess; a form of syncretism.
In the Middle Ages, some argue that the goddess Brigid was syncretized with the Christian saint of the same name. According to medievalist Pamela Berger, Christian "monks took the ancient figure of the mother goddess and grafted her name and functions onto her Christian counterpart," St. Brigid of Kildare.
St. Brigid is associated with perpetual, sacred flames, such as the one maintained by 19 nuns at her sanctuary in Kildare, Ireland. The sacred flame at Kildare was said by Giraldus Cambrensis and other chroniclers to have been surrounded by a hedge, which no man could cross. Men who attempted to cross the hedge were said to have been cursed to go insane, die or be crippled.
The tradition of female priestesses tending sacred, naturally occurring eternal flames is a feature of ancient Indo-European pre-Christian spirituality. Other examples include the Roman goddess Vesta, and other hearth-goddesses, such as Hestia.
Both the goddess and saint are associated with holy wells, at Kildare and many other sites in the Celtic lands. Well dressing, the tying of rags, (called clooties in Scotland), to the trees next to healing wells, and other methods of petitioning or honoring Brigid still take place in some of the British Isles and the diaspora.
Brigid is considered the patroness of poetry, smithing, medicine, arts and crafts, cattle and other livestock, sacred wells, serpents (in Scotland) and the arrival of early spring. In the Christian era, nineteen nuns at Kildare tended a perpetual flame for the Saint, which is widely believed to be a continuation of a pre-Christian practice of women tending a flame in her honour. Her festival day, Imbolc is traditionally a time for weather prognostication:
Brigid’s name means “Exalted One” and “She Who Rises.” In Scotland she is known as Brighide (Bride). In Wales, she is known as Ffraid, Baint and Breint, and there are several place names in her honor.
More modern spellings of her name include Brigit, Brid and Brig. In Irish literature she is one of the Tuatha Dé Danann, and daughter of the Dagda, wife of Bres and mother of Ruadan. She is the goddess of dawn, blacksmithing (synonymous in the ancient Celtic world with what we might think of as “technology” today), wisdom, and domesticated animals.
Brigid was appealed to for protection for both humans and animals. She is a goddess of healing and medicine – for both people and animals.
She is described as having two sisters as part of a trinity. Brigid is often referred to as Goddess of Fire, and is also importantly a water goddess, associated with various wells and rivers. As a goddess of poetry, it must be noted that Celtic poetry involved the oral transmission of all important cultural knowledge, and the memorization of vast bodies of lore.
Perhaps most well known for being an Irish goddess, she was also found throughout Britain – known to the Brythonic Celts as Brigantia. The Brigantes tribe of northern England claimed her as their spiritual ancestor. Numerous archeological finds have been found attested to her, and the River Brent was named for her. As with Irish Brigid, Brigantia presided over rivers and wells and the Romans called her “Nymph Goddess.”
Various wells are attributed to her throughout Ireland and Scotland. Both the goddess (and later Saint Brigid, see below) are venerated at sacred wells through the tying of cooties on trees next to the wells.
Both goddess and saint are associated with Imbolg, an ancient fertility festival around February 1, which marks the shift from Winter towards Spring. In this she is strongly associated with Cailleach (who in some stories is Brigid’s crone aspect). Imbolg was a time for divination of the weather, along with traditions across Europe, which informed the modern-day folk traditions of Groundhog Day.
In Irish myth, Brigid has a menagerie of animal companions, including guardian beasts who cry out at any sign of danger. Two named oxen called Fea and Femen, give their monikers to two plains in Ireland, and Cirb the boar, also named Torc Triath “the King of the Boars,” has his own plain as well.
The figure Saint Brigid inherited many of the goddess’ attributes, and was said to charm wild wolves into domestication. Likewise, she could charm wild boars to domestic pigs, and summon wild ducks. As a saint she is strongly associated with pregnancy and motherhood.
According to the Cath Maige Tuired, at the death of her son Ruadan, Brigid began the folk custom of wail-singing called keening, which lived on as an important lamentation practice among the Irish and Scottish. Professional keeners were women who earned a wage by performing this duty, and in addition to conducting cathartic wailing, would recite the deceased person’s lineage, history and family.
Brigid’s husband in the Irish lore is Bres, a Fomorian who serves as king of the Tuatha Dé Danann. The Fomorians can be compared to other earlier families of gods, such as the Jötnar, and their story is similar to their conflicts with the Vanir and Æsir in Norse-Germanic myth. The wedding of Brigid and Bres is an act of diplomacy between the two tribes.
Brigid is one of the most beloved of Celtic figures among many traditions: Celtic pagan, Wiccan, the women’s spirituality movement, and even Catholic and Anglican (Protestant) Christianity (as a saint).
Brigid was so beloved and culturally significant that the Christians who arrived in Ireland kept and adopted her during the conversion period. The goddess was syncretized by Celtic Christians with the figure of Saint Brigid of Kildare. Scholars have learned a lot about the goddess Brigid through deconstructing the saint. While there indeed appear to be several candidates for a real-life personage dubbed Saint Brigid of Kildare, the aspects of the goddess are obvious when you look at them. Saint Brigid is associated with the tending of a perpetual, sacred flame. Nuns today tend such a flame in the sanctuary of the saint.
Among the saint’s attributes was the ability to manifest never-ending quantities of food, in particular cheese, milk, butter, porridge, and pork. She could also turn rock into nutritious salt, and turn water into beer. She was able to ask trees to get up and move!
Scholars think that there were several nuns who modeled their lives after the goddess, and took her name, in a like manner that nuns practice the taking of names of Mary and other spiritual role-models. Celtic Christianity, as begun in Ireland was a relatively harmonic fusion of the faiths. So much so that the monks who painstakingly preserved the old faith in their records appear to have done their best to preserve much of the pagan past and merge it with their own mythology.
Hence, the Irish cosmogony in the Lebor Gabála is a hodgepodge, grafted onto Hebrew myth. This blending, now called Celtic Christianity horrified Roman Catholicism, who in the 1100s came to Ireland to clean things up, a process which among other things saw the demotion of Christian priestesses called Abbesses.
Brigid is one of mythology’s great diplomats. Her wedding to Bres the Fomorian prince is an act of statecraft between two warring tribes of gods. She brings together wild and domestic animals. Her soothing, summoning, and putting to domestic task various wild animals places her a part of world folkloric motif of Fairy Tale maidens pacifying beasts.
The Romans syncretized her with Minerva, goddess of wisdom and technology. This fused deity is often referred to by scholars as Gaulish Minerva. Like Minerva, Brigit is credited with creating the first whistle instrument. This goddess was called upon as a goddess of war and defense of the Homefront by her Brythonic children, the Brigantes, in their resistance to Roman occupation.
The tradition of female priestesses tending sacred, naturally occurring eternal flames is a feature of ancient Indo-European pre-Christian spirituality. It is possible that Brigid is linked with Greco-Roman Vesta-Hestia, goddess of the physical and spiritual hearth. There is evidence in the Celtic period of priestesses who tended fires in early Iron Age Ireland.
With the power to end unwanted pregnancy and her role as a midwife, Brigid is often thought of by modern pagans as a goddess of women’s reproductive health and choice.
Brigid’s name appears to be connected with the Hindu goddess of the dawn, one of whose names is Bṛhatī.
The Morrígan or Mórrígan, also known as Morrígu, is a figure from Irish mythology. The name is Mór-Ríoghain in Modern Irish, and it has been translated as "great queen" or "phantom queen".
The Morrígan is mainly associated with war and fate, especially with foretelling doom, death, or victory in battle. In this role she often appears as a crow, the badb. She incites warriors to battle and can help bring about victory over their enemies. The Morrígan encourages warriors to do brave deeds, strikes fear into their enemies, and is portrayed washing the bloodstained clothes of those fated to die. She is most frequently seen as a goddess of battle and war and has also been seen as a manifestation of the earth- and sovereignty-goddess,chiefly representing the goddess's role as guardian of the territory and its people.
The Morrígan is often described as a trio of individuals, all sisters, called "the three Morrígna". Membership of the triad varies; sometimes it is given as Badb, Macha, and Nemain while elsewhere it is given as Badb, Macha, and Anand (the latter is given as another name for the Morrígan). It is believed that these were all names for the same goddess. The three Morrígna are also named as sisters of the three land goddesses Ériu, Banba, and Fódla. The Morrígan is described as the envious wife of The Dagda and a shape-shifting goddess, while Badb and Nemain are said to be the wives of Neit. She is associated with the banshee of later folklore.
The Morrígan's earliest narrative appearances, in which she is depicted as an individual, are in stories of the Ulster Cycle, where she has an ambiguous relationship with the hero Cúchulainn. In the Táin Bó Regamna ("The Cattle Raid of Regamain"), Cúchulainn encounters the Morrígan, but does not recognise her, as she drives a heifer from his territory. In response to this perceived challenge, and his ignorance of her role as a sovereignty figure, he insults her. But before he can attack her she becomes a black bird on a nearby branch. Cúchulainn now knows who she is, and tells her that had he known before, they would not have parted in enmity. She notes that whatever he had done would have brought him ill luck. To his response that she cannot harm him, she delivers a series of warnings, foretelling a coming battle in which he will be killed. She tells him, "It is at the guarding of thy death that I am; and I shall be."
In the Táin Bó Cúailnge ("The Cattle Raid of Cooley"), Queen Medb of Connacht launches an invasion of Ulster to steal the bull Donn Cuailnge; the Morrígan, like Alecto of the Greek Furies, appears to the bull in the form of a crow and warns him to flee. Cúchulainn defends Ulster by fighting a series of single combats at fords against Medb's champions. In between combats, the Morrígan appears to him as a young woman and offers him her love and her aid in the battle, but he rejects her offer. In response, she intervenes in his next combat, first in the form of an eel who trips him, then as a wolf who stampedes cattle across the ford, and finally as a white, red-eared heifer leading the stampede, just as she had warned in their previous encounter. However, Cúchulainn wounds her in each form and defeats his opponent despite her interference. Later, she appears to him as an old woman bearing the same three wounds that her animal forms had sustained, milking a cow. She gives Cúchulainn three drinks of milk. He blesses her with each drink, and her wounds are healed. He regrets blessing her for the three drinks of milk, which is apparent in the exchange between the Morrígan and Cúchulainn: "She gave him milk from the third teat, and her leg was healed. 'You told me once,' she said,'that you would never heal me.' 'Had I known it was you,' said Cúchulainn, 'I never would have.' As the armies gather for the final battle, she prophesies the bloodshed to come.
In one version of Cúchulainn's death-tale, as Cúchulainn rides to meet his enemies, he encounters the Morrígan as a hag washing his bloody armor in a ford, an omen of his death. Later in the story, mortally wounded, Cúchulainn ties himself to a standing stone with his own entrails so he can die upright, and it is only when a crow lands on his shoulder that his enemies be
The Morrígan also appears in texts of the Mythological Cycle. In 12th-century pseudo historical compilation the Lebor Gabála Érenn ("The Book of the Taking of Ireland"), she is listed among the Tuatha Dé Danann as one of the daughters of Ernmas, granddaughter of Nuada.
The first three daughters of Ernmas are given as Ériu, Banba, and Fódla. Their names are synonyms for "Ireland", and they were respectively married to Mac Gréine, Mac Cuill, and Mac Cécht, the last three Tuatha Dé Danann kings of Ireland. Associated with the land and kingship, they probably represent a triple goddess of sovereignty. Next come Ernmas' other three daughters: Badb, Macha, and the Morrígan. A quatrain describes the three as wealthy, "springs of craftiness", and "sources of bitter fighting". The Morrígu's name is also said to be Anand, and she had three sons: Glon, Gaim, and Coscar. According to Geoffrey Keating's 17th-century History of Ireland, Ériu, Banba, and Fódla worshiped Badb, Macha, and the Morrígan respectively.
The Morrígan also appears in the Cath Maige Tuired ("The Battle of Magh Tuireadh"). On Samhain, she keeps a tryst with the Dagda before the battle against the Fomorians. When he meets her, she is washing herself, standing with one foot on either side of the river Unius. In some sources, she is believed to have created the river. After they have sex, the Morrígan promises to summon the magicians of Ireland to cast spells on behalf of the Tuatha Dé, and to destroy Indech, the Fomorian king, taking from him "the blood of his heart and the kidneys of his valour." Later, we are told, she would bring two handfuls of his blood and deposit them in the same river (however, we are also told later in the text that Indech was killed by Ogma).
As battle is about to be joined, the Tuatha Dé leader, Lug, asks each what power they bring to the battle. The Morrígan's reply is difficult to interpret, but involves pursuing, destroying and subduing. When she comes to the battlefield, she chants a poem, and immediately the battle breaks and the Fomorians are driven into the sea. After the battle, she chants another poem celebrating the victory and prophesying the end of the world.
In another story, she lures away the bull of a woman named Odras. Odras then follows the Morrígan to the Otherworld, via the cave of Cruachan, which is said to be her "fit abode." When Odras falls asleep, the Morrígan turns her into a pool of water that feeds into the River Shannon. In this story, the Morrigan is called the Dagda's envious queen, fierce of mood. She is also called a "shape-shifter" and a cunning raven caller whose pleasure was in mustered hosts.
The Morrígan is often considered a triple goddess, but this triple nature is ambiguous and inconsistent. These triple appearances are partially due to the Celtic significance of threeness. Sometimes she appears as one of three sisters, the daughters of Ernmas: Morrígan, Badb and Macha.Sometimes the trinity consists of Badb, Macha and Anand, collectively known as the Morrígna. Occasionally, Nemain or Fea appear in the various combinations. However, the Morrígan can also appear alone, and her name is sometimes used interchangeably with Badb.
The Morrígan is mainly associated with war and fate, and is often interpreted as a "war goddess". W. M. Hennessy's The Ancient Irish Goddess of War, written in 1870, was influential in establishing this interpretation. She is said to derive pleasure from mustered hosts. Her role often involves premonitions of a particular warrior's violent death, suggesting a link with the banshee of later folklore. This connection is further noted by Patricia Lysaght: "In certain areas of Ireland this supernatural being is, in addition to the name banshee, also called the badhb". Her role was to not only be a symbol of imminent death, but to also influence the outcome of war. Most often, she did this by appearing as a crow flying overhead, and would either inspire fear or courage in the hearts of the warriors. In some cases, she is written to have appeared in visions to those who are destined to die in battle as washing their bloody armor. In this specific role, she is also given the role of foretelling imminent death with a particular emphasis on the individual. There are also a few rare accounts where she would join in the battle itself as a warrior and show her favoritism in a more direct manner.
The Morrígan is also associated with the land and animals, particularly livestock. Máire Herbert argues that "war per se is not a primary aspect of the role of the goddess." Herbert suggests that "her activities have a tutelary character. She oversees the land, its stock and its society. Her shape-shifting is an expression of her affinity with the whole living universe." Patricia Lysaght notes that the Cath Maige Tuired depicts the Morrígan as "a protectress of her people's interests" and associates her with both war and fertility. According to Proinsias Mac Cana, the goddess in Ireland is "primarily concerned with the prosperity of the land: its fertility, its animal life, and (when it is conceived as a political unit) its security against external forces." Likewise, Maria Tymoczko writes, "The welfare and fertility of a people depend on their security against external aggression," and notes that "warlike action can thus have a protective aspect." It is therefore suggested that the Morrígan is a manifestation of the earth- and sovereignty-goddess, chiefly representing the goddess' role as guardian of the territory and its people. She can be interpreted as providing political or military aid, or protection to the king—acting as a goddess of sovereignty, not necessarily of war.
It has also been suggested that she was closely linked to the fianna, and that these groups may have been in some way dedicated to her. These were "bands of youthful warrior-hunters, living on the borders of civilized society and indulging in lawless activities for a time before inheriting property and taking their places as members of settled, landed communities." If true, her worship may have resembled that of Perchta groups in Germanic areas.
There is a burnt mound site in County Tipperary known as Fulacht na Mór Ríoghna ("cooking pit of the Mórrígan"). The fulachtaí sites are found in wild areas, and are usually associated with outsiders such as the fianna, as well as with the hunting of deer. There may be a link with the three mythical hags who cook the meal of dog flesh that brings the hero Cúchulainn to his doom. The Dá Chích na Morrígna ("two breasts of the Mórrígan"), a pair of hills in County Meath, suggest to some a role as a tutelary goddess, comparable to Anu, who has her own hills, Dá Chích Anann ("the breasts of Anu") in County Kerry. Other goddesses known to have similar hills are Áine and Grian of County Limerick who, in addition to a tutelary function, also have solar attr
There have been attempts by some modern researchers and authors of fiction to link the Morrígan with the character of Morgan, the latter often being depicted in the legend as a fairy or otherwise supernatural sister of King Arthur. Morgan first appears in literature in Geoffrey of Monmouth's 12th-century Vita Merlini as a goddess-like figure in no blood relation to Arthur, whom she takes to her Otherworld style land of Avalon following his mortal wound in a battle. In some Arthurian texts, such as Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Morgan is portrayed as a hag whose actions set into motion a bloody trail of events that lead the hero into numerous instances of danger. Morgan is also depicted as a seductress, much like the older legends of the Morrígan, and has numerous lovers whom she might be even abducting for this purpose (as in some stories of Lancelot and Ogier the Dane, among others). The character is frequently depicted as wielding power over others to achieve her own purposes, allowing those actions to play out over time, to the benefit or detriment of other characters.
However, while the creators of the literary character of Morgan may have been somewhat inspired by the much older tales of the goddess, the relationship likely ends there. Scholars such as Rosalind Clark hold that the names are unrelated, the Welsh "Morgan" (Wales being the original source of the Matter of Britain) being derived from root words associated with the sea, while the Irish "Morrígan" has its roots either in a word for "terror" or a word for "greatness".
Hapi was the god of the annual flooding of the Nile in ancient Egyptian religion. The flood deposited rich silt (fertile soil) on the river's banks, allowing the Egyptians to grow crops. Hapi was greatly celebrated among the Egyptians. Some of the titles of Hapi were "Lord of the Fish and Birds of the Marshes" and "Lord of the River Bringing Vegetation". Hapi is typically depicted as an androgynous figure with a big belly and large drooping breasts, wearing a loincloth and ceremonial false beard.
The annual flooding of the Nile occasionally was said to be the Arrival of Hapi. Since this flooding provided fertile soil in an area that was otherwise desert, Hapi symbolised fertility. He had large female breasts because he was said to bring a rich and nourishing harvest. Due to his fertile nature he was sometimes considered the "father of the gods", and was considered to be a caring father who helped to maintain the balance of the cosmos, the world or universe regarded as an orderly, harmonious system. He was thought to live within a cavern at the supposed source of the Nile near Aswan. The cult of Hapi was mainly located at the First Cataract named Elephantine. His priests were involved in rituals to ensure the steady levels of flow required from the annual flood. At Elephantine the official nilometer, a measuring device, was carefully monitored to predict the level of the flood, and his priests must have been intimately concerned with its monitoring.
Hapi was not regarded as the god of the Nile itself but of the inundation event. He was also considered a "friend of Geb", the Egyptian god of the earth, and the "lord of Neper", the god of grain.
In Greek mythology, Theia (/ˈθiːə/; Ancient Greek: Θεία, romanized: Theía, also rendered Thea or Thia), also called Euryphaessa "wide-shining", is the Titaness of sight and by extension the goddess who endowed gold, silver and gems with their brilliance and intrinsic value. Her brother/consort is Hyperion, a Titan and god of the sun, and together they are the parents of Helios (the Sun), Selene (the Moon), and Eos (the Dawn). She may be the same with Aethra, the consort of Hyperion and mother of his children in some accounts.
The name Theia alone means simply "goddess" or "divine"; Theia Euryphaessa (Θεία Εὐρυφάεσσα) brings overtones of extent (εὐρύς, eurys, "wide", root: εὐρυ-/εὐρε-) and brightness (φάος, phaos, "light", root: φαεσ-). Once paired in later myths with her Titan brother Hyperion as her husband, "mild-eyed Euryphaessa, the far-shining one" of the Homeric Hymn to Helios, was said to be the mother of Helios (the Sun), Selene (the Moon), and Eos (the Dawn).
Proserpina (/proʊˈsɜːrpɪnə/ proh-SUR-pin-ə, Latin: [proːˈsɛrpɪna]) or Proserpine (/proʊˈsɜːrpɪni, ˈprɒsərpaɪn/ proh-SUR-pin-ee, PROSS-ər-pyne is an ancient Roman goddess whose cult, myths and mysteries were combined from those of Libera, an early Roman goddess of wine. In Greek she is known as Persephone and her mother is Demeter, goddesses of grain and agriculture. The originally Roman goddess Libera was daughter of the agricultural goddess Ceres and wife to Liber, god of wine and freedom. In 204 BC, a new "Greek-style" cult to Ceres and Proserpina as "Mother and Maiden" was imported from southern Italy, along with Greek priestesses to serve it, and was installed in Libera and Ceres' temple on Rome's Aventine Hill. The new cult and its priesthood were actively promoted by Rome's religious authorities as morally desirable for respectable Roman women, and may have partly subsumed the temple's older, native cult to Ceres, Liber and Libera; but the new rites seem to have functioned alongside the old, rather than replaced them.
Just as Persephone was thought to be a daughter of Demeter, Romans made Proserpina a daughter of Demeter's Roman equivalent, Ceres. Like Persephone, Proserpina is associated with the underworld realm and its ruler; and along with her mother Ceres, with the springtime growth of crops and the cycle of life, death and rebirth or renewal. Her name is a Latinisation of "Persephone", perhaps influenced by the Latin proserpere ("to emerge, to creep forth"), with respect to the growing of grain. Her core myths – her forcible abduction by the god of the underworld, her mother's search for her and her eventual but temporary restoration to the world above – are the subject of works in Roman and later art and literature. In particular, Proserpina's seizure by the god of the Underworld – usually described as the Rape of Proserpina, or of Persephone – has offered dramatic subject matter for Renaissance and later sculptors and painters.
In Greek mythology, Persephone (/pərˈsɛfəniː/ pər-SEF-ə-nee; Greek: Περσεφόνη, romanized: Persephónē), also called Kore or Kora (/ˈkɔːriː/ KOR-ee; Greek: Κόρη, romanized: Kórē, lit. 'the maiden'), is the daughter of Zeus and Demeter. She became the queen of the underworld after her abduction by Hades, the god of the underworld, with the approval of her father, Zeus.The myth of her abduction and return to the surface represents her functions as the embodiment of spring and the personification of vegetation, which sprouts from the earth in spring and disappears into the earth after harvest. In Classical Greek art, Persephone is invariably portrayed robed, often carrying a sheaf of grain. She may appear as a mystical divinity with a sceptre and a little box, but she was mostly represented in the process of being carried off by Hades.
Persephone as a vegetation goddess and her mother Demeter were the central figures of the Eleusinian mysteries, which promised the initiated a more enjoyable prospect after death. The origins of her cult are uncertain, but it was based on ancient agrarian cults of agricultural communities. To her alone were dedicated the mysteries celebrated at Athens in the month of Anthesterion.
Her name has numerous historical variants. These include Persephassa (Περσεφάσσα) and Persephatta (Περσεφάττα). In Latin, her name is rendered Proserpina. She was identified by the Romans as the Italic goddess Libera, who was conflated with Prosperina. Myths similar to Persephone's descent and return to earth also appear in the cults of male gods like Attis, Adonis, and Osiris, and in Minoan Crete.
In ancient Roman religion, Ceres (/ˈsɪəriːz/ SEER-eez, Latin: [ˈkɛreːs]) was a goddess of agriculture, grain crops, fertility and motherly relationships. She was originally the central deity in Rome's so-called plebeian or Aventine Triad, then was paired with her daughter Proserpina in what Romans described as "the Greek rites of Ceres". Her seven-day April festival of Cerealia included the popular Ludi Ceriales (Ceres' games). She was also honoured in the May lustratio of the fields at the Ambarvalia festival, at harvest-time, and during Roman marriages and funeral rites.
Ceres is the only one of Rome's many agricultural deities to be listed among the Dii Consentes, Rome's equivalent to the Twelve Olympians of Greek mythology. The Romans saw her as the counterpart of the Greek goddess Demeter, whose mythology was reinterpreted for Ceres in Roman art and literature.